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Jessica Simmons, M.A. & Lauren Meyer, M.A.
Greetings! Welcome to Finding Success in Graduate School: An Interdisciplinary Survival Guide, the blog! We’re so excited that you have stumbled upon our space. Let us introduce ourselves. Our names are Lauren Meyer and Jessica Simmons: friends, colleagues, graduate students, wine enthusiasts… We have created this space, with the help of numerous others, as a way to tell stories, share advice, and provide some insight into graduate school.
To provide some context for where the idea for Finding Success came from, when we (Lauren and Jessica) were studying at the University of Arizona, we seemed to have had so many of those… “What in the world do I do with this?” situations. After some highs, lows, and lots of wine, we began to brainstorm the possibility of developing a survival guide for graduate school. After chatting with many of our colleagues and friends, we realized there seems to be a pretty significant need for something like this. After all, there are plenty of guides to surviving an undergraduate degree. And while we realize there are a handful of articles/books out there that address the graduate school experience and seek to offer some advice to those in our position, most of them wrote about one topic in particular (e.g., how to become a scholar). Or, some of these publications were one-time articles that were written by seasoned professors who may be a bit removed from the process. That’s where we come in.
With the help of several of our incredible colleagues from diverse fields across the world, our goal is to shed some light on topics we have collectively hemmed and hawed over: grad school culture, hours and expectations, finances, physical and mental health, support systems, and meeting particular needs, among many other topics. What will this look like, you ask? Our intent is to provide one engaging and scholarly advice column once per week for a year (excluding those months with holidays and breaks). Let us give you a sample…
Graduate School: A Crash Course
“The underlying values, beliefs, and meaning...in part establish the culture [of graduate school]. The resultant attitudes and behavior in part establish the climate” (Peterson & Spencer, 1990).
In a lot of ways, the graduate school culture is what gave us the very idea to start this blog a few moons ago. In contrast to many of our other academic experiences, graduate school proved to be unique, and we yearned to share some of what we learned (and continue to learn) along the way. As you read on, maybe you will identify with us based on your own experiences in grad school. Or, perhaps you are looking to learn more about the academic culture you hope to find yourself in. Either way, you are in a good place and we are so glad you are here. The goal of this section is to shed light on the academic culture (as we know it). We’ll briefly cover some misconceptions grad students have reported, as well as a few tips and great websites we hope you will find helpful. Obviously, the topic of graduate school culture is a meaty one, so stay tuned as many of our collaborators delve a little deeper throughout the next year. For now, think of this as an appetizer to upcoming juicier content.
As with any culture, graduate school involves specific values, beliefs, and meaning (Peterson & Spencer, 1990). It comes with its own societal norms and expectations; attitudes, beliefs, and ideas of who you should be and what you should be doing. However, it is often the somewhat hidden and unconscious expectations of the graduate school culture that have the ability to throw us off our game. (As busy students, that is the last thing we need!) Alongside stressful expectations are misconceptions, which too, can be stressful. For example, do you know anyone who started graduate school with rose-colored glasses and a goal to save the world? (Raises hand…). Fortunately, we are not alone in having expectations. Brown, Anderson-Johnson, and McPhearson (2016) surveyed graduate students to assess for their common misconceptions and unwanted surprises. Students were asked to complete the following task, “Carefully list aspects of graduate school that you were regrettably unaware of.” In this sample, common feelings were the structure of the curriculum; the amount of pressure; time requirements; and hidden costs. Additionally, researchers have found exam preps, course-related workload, costs, and the demands of writing assignments to negatively contribute to their stress levels and overall health problems (Brown et al., 2016; Labosier & Labosier, 2011). Of course, stressful expectations that are not fulfilled or misconceptions about your experience are two very small aspects of an academic culture, but they certainly contribute to overall stress (Sawyer, 1991).
“Stress is synonymous with graduate school. With papers to write, articles to read, labs to teach, and research to complete, student life can be a dizzying experience each day… This incomplete listing of responsibilities does not even take into account that at some point, graduate students need to eat a meal, wash some clothes, and perhaps even, get a few hours of restless sleep… The pressure on today's graduate student to get everything done, to do it well, and in a timely manner, is significant” (Labosier & Labosier, 2011).
So, what can you do to prepare yourself for the graduate school culture? Make sure you are ready to thrive in a tough environment. In a fantastic article entitled, Pursuing Graduate School: Tips for Navigating the Process, Martinez Tucker (2002) recommended assessing your expectations and motivation in attending graduate school by answering the following questions: 1. Will the degree help my career?; 2. Will the degree help if I change careers?; 3. Do I have the desire to continue or go back to school?; 4. Is a graduate degree required or an advantage in the career that I have chosen?; and 5. Am I willing to make the sacrifices that going to graduate school may entail (e.g., lower income, less time)? Other suggestions have included becoming familiar with your program and field; mentor-student dynamics; program expectations; and social support (Martinez Tucker, 2002; Clark, Murdock, & Koetting, 2008; Dyrbye et al., 2010). We know this and research supports it. Do your best to talk to others in your field. If you are excited by research, jump into the literature to see what researchers have found. If you do not have easy access to a university library database, try these sites: Google Scholar and ResearchGate. (You can usually find a number of free-access articles that authors have uploaded for readers.) Additionally, if you have not yet checked out The Grad Cafe, do it! The Grad Cafe helps to connect you with other graduate students in your area of interest.
In sum, think, prep, plan! See below for a personal story about what happens with an unintentional lack of planning.
Before graduate school, Jessica worked as a research assistant in a pretty competitive environment. Day in and day out with her eyes set on grad school, she gave 110% believing the hard work would pay off. Throughout the grueling application and interview process she was so intently focused on gaining admission, she unintentionally never took the time to think about small details of the programs, locations considerations, etc. Instead, is was although she mentally checked the goal off of the To-Do list and went back to her normal day-to-day. It wasn’t until she arrived in Arizona (for graduate school) that she realized the lack of mental planning she had engaged in. Here was a brand new university with a much different academic culture than she was used to. To be expected, classes started, the rigor continued, and the work didn’t slow down. The first few weeks left Jessica feeling stressed, a bit overwhelmed, and wishing she had taken the time to think, prep, and plan instead of jumping into a doctoral program relatively head first.
Reality check: You were accepted into a program? Great! Now, force yourself to take some time to chat with others and think about where you are headed!
“Where do the hours go?”
“I wish I had more time!”
“I wonder how little sleep I can get away with…?”
“How on earth will I finish this assignment?”
If you have ever said any of these statements to yourself, you are in good company. Regardless of one’s occupation, everyone is busy; life is busy. For many of us grad students, being busy usually provides feelings of productivity, and (hopefully) a subsequent sense of accomplishment. And while it feels great to finish a task, your work is never quite done. There is always work to do. Maybe you are behind on a manuscript or review; there are those ten emails from yesterday still “Unread” in your Inbox; your professor asked the class to read six chapters by tomorrow; you have a coffee date with an undergrad who is helping with your data collection... For a set number of years, it can feel like you are in a tunnel with no signs of light at the end. (Or rather, an unaffected dog trapped in a burning house - see below.) We get it.
At the risk of sounding negative, let’s be honest: If you’re a stickler for the 9-5, you may want to rethink your academic goals. Between classes, research, practicum, and assistantships, it is not uncommon for graduate students to work 60 to 80 hours a week (Roberts-Miller, 2014; Mather-L’Huillier, n.d.; Golash-Boza, 2012). You may start identifying the lab or classroom as your less-than-glamorous second home; meals on the go will be a thing, as well as caffeine - lots of caffeine. From our experience, this is expected within the graduate school culture. For many of us, this is fine and we acknowledge it as something we signed up for - an agreement that our education be funded, or the understanding that our salaries will be significantly higher post graduation. However, it should be noted that not everyone within the graduate school culture feels this way. You have to figure out what works best for you and your lifestyle.
“Some students do want to put in 70 hours a week whilst they are able to sustain a high-level of motivation, and that’s great, but what is not great is to feel pressured into it… There are examples of researchers/academics who successfully and with dedication are 9 to 5 workers. Many believe it IS possible to achieve a work-life balance even when doing a PhD. There are students for whom 9 to 5 is all they get because they have family commitments, for example. And they still manage to get their PhD” (Mather-L’Huillier, n.d.).
On a positive note, if you have chosen the grad school route it is likely that you are studying something you love. While the work can be arduous, it is a pretty sweet deal that with some exception, we are able to study what we want to study (perhaps, a reward for surviving all those pre-reqs in college, ha!). It is important to remember that while it will not always feel like it, you are an adult and you choose your own destiny. Your mentor is likely not going to chastise you for working “too much,” so it is up to you to set aside enough time to do the things important to you. Get yourself to the gym, take a nice long shower, watch some reality television, catch up with friends and family, scour social media, sleep! In doing so, the little voice inside of your head may accuse you of “wasting time,” but you do you. It is SO important to know when to to put aside the books, close your laptop, and take a break (read more on self-care in January, 2018).
“Remember, we all need to recharge our batteries at some point and a rested student is more likely to enjoy their PhD. You do need to sustain a high level of motivation, but that doesn’t mean you can’t have a break from time to time” (Mather-L’Huillier, n.d.).
After graduating with her master’s degree and teaching undergraduate students for a few years, Lauren was pretty confident she was moving into her PhD with an understanding of the expectations ahead of her (there would be a lot of them); she knew had a handle on how the next five to six years would play out (coursework, dissertation, internship). Or so she thought. Having survived graduate school once before gave her an idea of the workload, but the rigors of an applied psychology program were different from what she had experienced before, just as the rigors of her master’s program were different from her experience as an undergraduate student. (Reality check: She would not be enrolling in five classes that assigned light readings and two semester exams.) Homework assignments were now real life preparations for the job (maybe this is obvious to some folks, and maybe it’s not). The learning curve was there, so tangible she could reach out and touch it.
Maybe this, too, is obvious, but there is literature to suggest that advanced degree training is designed to help you navigate the professional world after you graduate. In other words, it is a safe space to learn the ropes of the workplace we will all be joining in a few short (ish) years. For example, Austin (2002) describes the culture new faculty members experience:
Many new faculty members experience overload and stress from multiple demands. Rice, Sorcinelli, and Austin (2000) reported that new faculty members struggle with juggling multiple and sometimes conflicting professional responsibilities, and with achieving balance between professional and personal lives. Studies of new faculty also consistently report that faculty newcomers are isolated, perceiving a lack of collegiality that contradicts their expectations of faculty life (Menges and Associates, 1999; Rice, Sorcinelli, and Austin, 2000; Sorcinelli and Austin, 1992; Tierney and Bensimon, 1996). These pressures and disappointments cause some new faculty members to consider leaving the profession almost before embarking on their careers (Rice, Sorcinelli, and Austin, 2000). The importance of the intrinsic aspects of the work seems to be the critical motivator for many, even when pressures cause doubt and concern (Rice, Sorcinelli, and Austin, 2000).
With these comments in mind, it would make sense for our training faculty to distill some aspect of resilience in us, challenging our abilities and testing the density of our skin (see posting on resilience, October, 2017), knowing that the world outside grad school is less forgiving. Certainly, Lauren would like to believe she entered both her master’s and her doctoral training programs with a growth mindset (Dweck, 2006), but it was a unique experience still, as her rose colored glasses lost some of their tinting. Of course, there is so much more that goes into this transition time that can help soften any discrepancies between your expectations and the expectations your faculty members will have of you, like honest and professional communication with your mentors (see posting on being professionally assertive in November, 2017 and posting on clarity in communication in June, 2018), flexibility (e.g., willingness to try something new, or do something you’ve always done), and a can-do/will-do attitude (e.g., check your ego at the door).
Consider this: Collier (2016) featured a post in the American Psych Association’s Monitor (read it here) describing the barriers students face when they convey arrogance in their presentation to others; alternatively, there are benefits to embracing the humble side of things, which are best illustrated by the five core hallmarks of humility: 1) being secure in one's identity, 2) being able to see oneself honestly, without distortion 3) being open to new information, 4) being "other-focused" rather than self-focused, and 5) having egalitarian beliefs (Chancellor & Lyubomirsky, 2013). This list does not suggest meekness as the route to success, but rather... open-mindedness. Lauren proposes that some of the difficulties one may face during that transition into graduate school can be mitigated by a sense of humility, whilst remaining open and honest with advisors/mentors. Be the person who is ready to learn, and is willing to teach others. Exude that willingness. (Graduate school recommendation: have the gives/needs conversation [i.e., as a graduate student, here is what I can give in my training and here is what I need in my training, and then the mentor reciprocates with the same statement, here is what I can give during your training, here is what I need during your training] with your mentor right at the start of your graduate school career.) Obviously, there will be some unique and (really) tough situations (e.g., unavailable faculty, difficulties with cohort) that will require additional support and some tact in addressing them, and we’ll talk about those, too (see postings on conflict in March and July, 2018), but knowing that whatever expectations you may enter with could be right on target, or off-base completely, is a valuable starting point. In other words, get comfortable with being uncomfortable, knowing that some flexibility will be required on your end, just as others will be flexible with you. Not everything will “fit” with the way you pictured it. They lovingly refer to that space outside your comfort zone as “magic,” despite the intense discomfort is exudes.
Financial problems are often a major deterrent when considering a graduate degree. Because of this, researchers support the idea of a cost-benefit analysis when planning (Mulig, 2015; Guerriero, 2002). While some jobs require graduate level training, many others do not. Given the stress and mental health issues financial stress can bring to the surface, thinking carefully about your decision to attend graduate school is a must (Wyatt & Oswalt, 2013).
Financial worries, particularly for graduate students, are immensely prevalent. Minority and low-income students are especially at risk during this time and have been found to borrow more than other their non-minority peers (52% versus 40%, respectively; Denecke, Feaster, Okahana, Allumn, & Stone, 2016) and are more likely to drop out (Baker, Andrews, & McDaniel, 2017). For many, borrowing money to pay for education starts during undergraduate years, making the cost of graduate school an added burden. Looking at undergraduate student trends, we know that about 36% of undergrads rely entirely on loans and about 64% use loans to supplement their tuition. One third of these students owe less than $10,000 and one in five students owe more than $30,000. Given these numbers, it’s not surprising that 70% of these students reported feeling stressed over their finances (National Student Financial Wellness Study, 2015).
“Financial stress threatens student success” (CGS Financial Standing Survey, 2014).
Arguably, finances are one of the most common stressors for all Americans. In addition to stress, financial woes contribute to overall health and academic performance (Wyatt & Oswalt, 2013). To take a closer look, consider this: In 2014, the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II found that in the past year:
Depression, in particular, is often the mental illness most studied among grad students (i.e., overwhelmed, exhausted, hopeless, sad). Expanding on the context of mental health concerns, researchers out of University of California Berkeley found:
We know stats are not always fun, but we feel the percentages above reflect very important information on how destructive financial issues can be. Researchers stress the need to determine whether investing in graduate school is worth the cost (Mulig, 2015). If you are interested in reading more about graduate school and finances, this is a great article: The $17 sandwich, and Other Financial Lessons for Grad Students.
In psychology, there are a group of activities called “ADLs” (activities of daily living). These activities include brushing your teeth, washing your clothes, taking showers, eating, etc. Essentially, they are behaviors that we tend to do on a very frequent basis without much thought. ADLs are often discussed in the context of depression and other mental illnesses that negatively impact energy and motivation. While mental health will be covered in a separate section (keep reading!), the point is that stress, anxiety, depression, and exhaustion can easily contribute to a decrease in ADL engagement, as well as broader physical health, and motivation. Mental health, physical health - it is all connected.
For Jessica, graduate school involves a great deal of writing, listening, and reading - all which tend to require sitting down. While her FitBit recommends 10k steps a day, she is lucky to get over 3k. As a former dancer and tennis player with activities built into her day, being active never required much thought. Fast forward ten years and dance and tennis have been exchanged with commitments and sedentary activities. (Adulting, if you will.) It is very easy to neglect your physical health.
For many years, science has suggested that exercise positively impacts symptoms of depression and anxiety. Evidence has shown that with medication, physical activity can play a crucial role in treatment (Carek, Laibstain, & Carek, 2011; Andersson, Hovland, Kiellman, Taube, & Martinsen, 2015; Parker et al., 2016). With the amount of stress graduate students endure, we should all be at the gym! However, similar to your ADLs, working out is also one of the first things to go when feeling overwhelmed. After a long day or week, mustering up the energy to exercise is challenging. When this happens, remind yourself that there are smaller healthy steps you can take, such as:
Fun fact: While living in Arizona, we (Lauren and Jessica) would try to stay active by going on weekend hikes, occasional runs, trips to Planet Fitness, etc. Getting ourselves to the gym did not always sound appealing. Instead, we looked on Groupon for fun exercise classes. When a kickboxing class was spotted, we quickly purchased the deal. On a following Saturday morning, we arrived at a rundown building in a not-so-great area of town. The building consisted of a broken storefront window and steel-bars covering the windows and door. While it was not quite the cute kickboxing studio we imagined, we made our way in to find a full-blown boxing gym complete with two boxing rings. Championship belts and autographed pictures lined the walls, and the smell of sweat was ever so present. Two ladies just trying to kickbox, we stood out like sore thumbs and we struggled with the “beginner” class skillset. Alas, we survived a handful of sessions which always involved self-deprecating laughter and sneakily taking Snapchats to send to friends. Always an adventure!
We share this story to say, get out there! Find an activity you enjoy, grab a buddy and break a sweat. We promise you will feel better when you are done! Check back in March, 2018 for a great post on self-care!
“You can’t pour from an empty cup.” Or maybe you’ve heard some derivative of this… “You can’t serve from an empty vessel” (Eleanor Brown, 2014). “Please secure your mask before assisting those around you” (every flight attendant certified by the Association of Flight Attendants). Ok, this is the moment where we say, “treat yo’self.” And we say it with sincerity. It is likely that in your graduate school career you will hear people talk about self-care, but you may not actually see them engage in self-care. This conflict between what people say and what people do tends to be a problem, especially when we see it evident with our mentors/advisors/any person we look up to. It sends the message that some people should take time for self-care, but other don’t have to because… They are super people and can do it all? Perhaps it is that those who do have a self-care regimen are weak? This is misleading, and the folks who do not actively engage in self-care are likely on their way to burnout (or they are already burned out, but they do not tell people for fear of appearing weak), facing excruciating mental health issues behind the veil - anxiety, depression, loneliness, distorted thinking, impairments in memory and cognition. Who has felt this way? :::All graduate students sheepishly raise hands::: Alright, you are in good company, friends. What does the literature say?
It seems that in the last ten years, there has been an increase in the number of discussions on the mental health needs of graduate students (e.g., Hyun, Quinn, Madon, & Lustig, 2006, 2007; White, Becker-Blease, & Grace-Bishop, 2006), although gaps in the literature are evident, as the majority of the literature has focused on undergraduate students (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton, 2003) or has examined small sub-samples of graduate students (Givens & Tija, 2002; Nelson, Dell’Oliver, Koch, & Buckler, 2001). There was an interesting commentary and call to action very recently. Have you read the Atlantic article Te-Erika Patterson wrote back in 2016? Read it, read it now! (Here.) Briefly, the demands graduate school place on us, and the demands we place on ourselves, may contribute to the internalization of our stressors. There is evidence to support this. For example, in 2005, Berkeley conducted a study examining mental health among its graduate students. This study found that ten percent of the graduate and professional students enrolled there had thought about suicide. (Did your jaw drop reading this?) Further, more than half of the students reported feeling depressed a lot of the time. Fast forward ten years, and Berkeley has revisited this conversation. Their newest survey discovered that 47% of doctoral level students were experiencing elevated depression symptoms, with the highest rates found among those in the arts and humanities (Jaschik, 2015). Students shared their comments on the survey, identifying concerns with advisement, finances, job prospects, and social support as the areas of greatest concern. Check out their summary of findings here.
In other words, graduate school is tough, so it is important we find ways to mitigate its effects in prosocial ways so that our mental health (our money makers) can be spared. We have a lot more to say about mental health, physical health, and self-care (see postings almost every month for the next year), as this will likely be the crux of your graduate school career. Anything we could say in a few paragraphs would be quite deficient in the context of mental health among advanced degree seekers. But, we have a few graduate school recommendations to present: find something that works for you and commit to it. Like, put it in your calendar and do not schedule *anything* else during that time (e.g., running, reading, socializing, being outside, cuddling with puppies, mindfulness); be willing to safely share (i.e., avoid posting your personal matters on social media, see somebody face to face instead) your difficulties with others to avoid the stigmatization of mental health; consider seeing a professional (e.g., university counseling centers are life changers; Lauren speaks from experience, she worked in one and those folks are the real deal. They get it.); sleep (get what you need, and fight to the death to make sure you get it). Last, recognize your own limits. If it is two o’clock in the morning and you are still working, ask yourself these questions: “Am I retaining this information? Am I producing quality work? Is there still time to complete this assignment?” Let the answers to these questions guide whether you go to sleep or keep working. In short, make your own mental health a priority, and demonstrate that to others who are not familiar with the concept. That in itself will help breakdown the mental health stigma we see in graduate school and we will see it manifest in our own lives. Last, check out this website: The Academic Mental Health Collective, an online space dedicated to breaking down mental health barriers among graduate students.
One factor of our mental health requires special attention. As you gain familiarity with your graduate training, you will likely find that having a support network around you will become a predictor of your success. We can both attest to the value of having a cohort of other graduate students who were going through the process with us. We collaborated on projects together, asked clarifying questions, and sought out expertise from friends who knew a bit more about a given topic than we did. Of course, peer-to-peer connections had their moments, as we navigated with our cohorts/classes, and had to be cognizant of the best ways to support each other as a group and individually, all while avoiding the trap of unhealthy competition. (Graduate school recommendation: stay in your lane! Remember your goals, your path, your passion, and make that carry you to the end.) In any case, our cohort motto quickly became, “This ship doesn’t sink” and that worked for us. The onus will fall on you and your support system to find a framework that will work for you, your schedules, and your personalities.
Knowing that you will be deeply embedded in your training, and very connected to your peers, mentors, and program, it is important to consider how you connect with those outside your program. Because this is an interdisciplinary survival guide, we would be remiss if we failed to comment on the value of having professional connections outside your program/area of study (see posting in August, 2017). We live in a diverse world (amen!); thus, more than likely you will be working with a diverse group upon completion of your training program. Meeting and collaborating with folks outside your discipline throughout your training will keep you sharp, creative, and social. Many universities will publicize different clubs, professional councils and groups, and extracurricular activities available. Find one you like and commit to it.
In addition, we found that prioritizing friend and family time was essential (see a great posting on starting a family, May 2018). Scheduling a FaceTime call into your calendar, emailing back and forth with friends, and staying connected through social media are valuable ways to stay present when academia feels like a drag (and it will totally feel like a drag sometimes). Reality check: you have to follow through. Put it in your calendar, and commit to doing it, even on the days you do not want to. (Reality check: you might say to yourself, “I don’t have time for self care.” The reality is, those are the days when you need it the most.) In your efforts, you may acknowledge the struggle of your non-graduate school friends not understanding your lifestyle (see another great posting on starting a family in graduate school, September 2017). More than likely, you will sometimes have questions about their lifestyles, too. This is very natural, particularly as those major life milestones arrive (e.g., online/dating, getting married, having children, landing a “dream” job) and you find your life looking different from those around you. Because it is worth repeating: stay in your lane and remember your goals. If you find that your goals are changing (e.g., leave of absence, health concerns, change in interests), another conversation might be useful (see posting on whether your graduate program is the right fit for you in February, 2018).
So Why Did We Create This Blog?
Graduate school is a life-changing experience, and will likely be one of the most wonderful things you ever do. You'll make life-long friends, and learn so much about your discipline, and yourself, along the way. So what function is this website supposed to serve? The purpose of this blog is twofold. First, Jessica, Lauren, and all of the wonderful collaborators are helpers (Dass & Gorman, 1985). They are eager to share their experience so that it might ease the experience for others. Second, this space is meant to be fun and real, an opportunity to look at the research and intertwine it with the real successes and barriers we face in graduate school. Not only do we want to normalize the chaos you may be feeling (because we have felt it, too), but we also want to celebrate the camaraderie of this adventure. Because the reality is, there is no greater feeling in graduate school than when somebody steps up and says, “I haven’t started that assignment, either.”
Over the course of the year, we will share all of these things and more with you. The stories might be funny or sad, but the advice will be real and grounded in research. We are an interdisciplinary group of scholars committed to sharing a new scholarly advice column every Friday (with a few exceptions). Join us for a year, connect with us, share your advice with us, and keep the conversation going, because we are in this together. This ship doesn’t sink.
Andersson, E., Hovland, A., Kjellman, B., & Martinsen, E. (2015). Physical activity is just as good as CBT or drugs for depression. Lakartidningen, 17(112).
Austin, A. E. (2002). Preparing the next generation of faculty: Graduate school as socialization to the academic career. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(1), 94-122. doi: 10.1353/jhe.2002.0001
Baker, A.R., Andrews, B. D., McDaniel, A. (2017). The impact of student loans on college access, completion, and returns. Sociology Compass, 11(6), e12480. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12480
Benton, S. A., Robertson, J., Tseng, W., Newton, F., & Benton, S. (2003). Changes in counseling client problems across 13 years. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(1), 68-72. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.34.1.66
Carek, P. J., Laibstein, S. E., & Carek, S. M. (2011). Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. International Journal of Psychiatric Medicine, 411(1), 15-28. doi: 10.2190/PM.41.1c
Chancellor, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(11), 819-833. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12069
Clark, H. K., Murdock, N. L., & Koenig, K. (2008). Predicting burnout and career choice satisfaction in counseling psychology graduate students. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(4), 580-606. doi: 10.1177/00110000008319985
Collier, L. (2016). Are you too cocky? Monitor on Psychology 47(7). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2016/07-08/graduate-cocky.aspx
Council for Graduate Students (CGS). (2014). Financial standing survey. Retrieved from: http://cgsnet.org/ckfinder/userfiles/files/GED_report_2013.pdf
Dass, R., & Gorman, P. (1985). How can I help? Stories and reflections of service. New York, NY: Albert A. Knopf, Inc.
Denecke, D., Feaster, K., Okahana, H., Allum, J., & Stone, K. (2016). Financial education: Developing high impact programs for graduate and undergraduate students. Washington, DC:
Council of Graduate Schools.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House Incorporated.
Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., Power, D. V., Durning, S., Moutier, C., Massie, F. S., Harper, W., Eacker, A., Szydlo, D. W., Sloan, J.A., Shanafelt, T., D. (2010). Burnout and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school: a multi-institutional study. Academic Medicine, 85(1):94-102. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181c46aad
Givens, J., & Tjia, J. (2002). Depressed medical students’ use of mental health services and barriers to use. Academic Medicine, 77(9), 918-921.
Golash-Boza, T. M. (2012). Get a life, PhD: Succeed in Academia and have a life too. Retrieved from: http://getalifephd.blogspot.com/2012/03/whats-matter-with-forty-hour-work-week.html, July 20, 2017.
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